In addition, oxygen-containing solvents like ethanol are breaking chemical bonds between substances to be extracted raw material. This allows to increase the extraction depth, but at the same time, results in extraction of not only biologically active substances and essential oils, but also water-soluble compounds (sugars, gum, resins) which provide undesirable caramel-like smell of the extracts. Oxygen-containing solvents possess another disadvantage: they relatively well dissolve water from the raw material. removal of water from the extract requires additional manipulation and, therefore, increases the loss of valuable compounds.
Application of liquid gases produces natural extracts without solvent rest. They retain the odor of the raw material and native biological properties of components and often demonstrate bactericide and bacteriostatic properties. Thermo- and oxygen labile components are remaining intact under these conditions. Biological and hormonal activities of such extract are relatively high.
The most widely used and promising extractant for the extraction of biologically active substances from the plant raw material is liquid carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide is harmless, non-flammable, selective extractant and has all advantages of liquid gases: it extract target components selectively, extract fatty oil in the minimum extent. Additional removal of solvent is not necessary as it completely removed at the atmospheric pressure. Liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) is a selective extractant which does not dissolve salts, sugars, amino acids, peptides. In addition, liquid carbon dioxide, similar to other liquid gases, kills all the microorganisms from the raw material. Extracts have some bactericide properties due to residual CO2. Experiments have shown that many CO2-extracts do not change their properties after 7 years storage.
Another advantage of the liquid carbon dioxide as a solvent is its high diffusion ability. As a result many polar and apolar compounds including alcohols, esters, lactones, carbonyl compounds, carotenoids can be extracted from the raw material.
Individual and combined CO2-extarcts include a combination of biologically active substances having aromatic, pharmaceutical, dermatological action. They increase the effect of formulations, and make them innovative and highly attractive products.
Combined CO2-extract of calendula (marigold) and millet chaff contains the following main components: free fatty acids - 28.9%; non-saponifiable faraction -20.4%; saponifiable fraction - 39.7%; waxes - 0.87%; sterols -1.2%; carotenoids - 0.011-0.016%; essential oil - 0.77%; tocopherols - 0.023%.
CO2-extracts and tinctures of marigold strengthen capillary walls due to high content of carotenoids and flavonoids. Marigold ha sedative, light hypotensive action, normalize heart activity, reduces oedemas.
Millet chaff is a waste of processing millet to the food grain. Millet chaff contains 10-12% oil. This millet oil contains unsaturated fatty acids, sterols and sterol esters, and cyclic triterpenoide miliacin. It acts as a biological stimulator, has anabolic activity, and stabilizes cell membranes. Chemical composition of millet oil: phospholipides - 1.35%, monoglycerides - 1.95%, triglycerides - 43.45%, free fatty acids - 27.62%, sterols -3.8%, miliacin - 3.8%, carotenoids - 11.58%, tocopherols - 3.5%.
Millet chaff CO2-extract demonstrates therapeutic activity in treatment of trophic ulcers, purulent wounds, badly healing wounds. Due to content of various biologically active substances it has high level of the biological activity.
Essential part of millet chaff CO2-extract is unsaturated fatty acids, including 64,08% of linoleic acid. Unsaturated fatty acids, in particular linoleic and linolenic are involved in the lipid metabolism and play an important role in the preventing of certain skin diseases.
Presence of unsaturated fatty acids and the pentacyclic triterpenoid miliacin in the millet chaff CO2-extract is important for cosmetic products as this substance possess anabolic activity and stabilizes cell membranes.
Combination of biologically active substance extracted from the millet chaff demonstrates pronounced anti-inflammatory and wound-healing action which is ca. 15-fold stronger then that of the sea buckthorn.
Fir CO2-extract is a biologically active product which contains tocopherols, vitamin C, vitamin P, sterols, waxes. Product odor is determined by bornyl acetate and some other components; extract contains also maltol, which represent certain interest.
Fir needles contain up to 2,5% of essential oil, which, i turn, contains up to 49% of bornyl acetate, free borneol, pinene, and other terpenes. Along with essential oil, fir needles contain triterpenoids and flavonoids, they have high content of manganese, zinc, copper.
Fir essential oil is used as a fragrance for soap, detergents and disinfectants, deodorants and other perfumery and cosmetics products. Fir oil heals wounds caused by eczema and psoriasis.
Fir barras is a starting material for fir balm, which is a constituent of medical and cosmetic balms. Cosmetic balm has antimicrobial properties; it is used in skin care products for acne treatment.
Main part of the hop CO2-extract represented by the bitter and resinous substances. Bitters are represented by two classes of bitter acids, alpha and beta, which are acyl phloroglycide derivatives. The main representative of alpha bitter acids is humulone, and that of beta bitter acids is lupulone.
Hop fruits contain organic acids, essential oil, alkaloids, vitamin B1, tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanines, chalcones. Hop fruits possess antibiotic and sedative properties. Hop fruits are used as various formulations - dry extract, tincture, water extract, and CO2-extract.
Fruits of sea buckthorn contain fatty oil, organic acids, sugars, vitamins В1, В2, В6, Е, С, Р, folic acid (В9), carotene, minerals, pigments, tannins, and flavonoids. In addition, tocopherols, carotenoids, vitamins К, В1, В2, В6, sterols, sigma-sterols, beta-sterols, higher fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic), as well as phytoncides were found in the sea buckthorn oil.
Decoction of fruits and branches of sea buckthorn is used to prevent the hair loss.
Sea buckthorn oil has anti-inflammatory, pain relieving, wound-healing and antimicrobial effect. It stimulates regeneration processes in the damaged tissues, increases protein content in liver, regulates lipid metabolism, prevents nodular sclerosis.
Properties of vitamins from the CO2-extracts and its action on the skin.
Vitamins play an important role in the treatment and prevention of various diseases. Fat soluble vitamins (А, D, Е, К) are constituents of biological membranes, which ate the main building block of the cells. Vitamins stabilize membranes, protect them from the oxidative stress, provide normal work of the membrane enzymes.
Vitamin A and carotene play an important role in the preventing of trophic processes in skin. They are also involved in redox reactions. Lack of the vitamin A leads to skin dryness and loss of elasticity, reduces fat and sweat excretion. Vitamin A gives natural color to the skin and makes the skin soft. It is used by problems with lipid, phosphorus, and mineral metabolism in skin.
Vitamin Е (tocopherol acetate) is an active antioxidant, it inhibits metabolism of proteins, nucleic acids and steroids. Vitamin E is used in cosmetics products in faded skin care.
Vitamin F is a conditional name for the mixture of unsaturated fatty acids
(linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic). Upon penetration into the skin, vitamin
F has deep metabolic effect. It regulates the carbohydrate metabolism, reduces
the sugar content in blood, increases lipotropic action of choline. It increases
the immunity to certain infectious diseases, activates action of vitamins. It
increases lipolitic activity and regenerative function of epidermis, stimulates
local blood and lymph circulation.
Vitamin E is used in many cosmetic products in faded skin care.
Properties of combined CO2-extracts for cosmetic formulations.
Rice meal and carrot seed CO2-extract is a vitamin combination with softening, regenerating, and nutritive effect.
Rice meal is a waste from the polishing of rice. It consist of pieces of seed shell, fragments of nucleus, germs, and starch dust. It is enriched with vitamins B and E, lipids, and contains no allergenic substances. Main components of lipids from rice meal are triglycerides, sterol glycosides, and phosphatidyl choline.
Carrot seed are interesting for cosmetics due to content of fatty oil which is a good softener. Carrot seed contains up to 17% of fatty oil. Fatty acids are represented with petroselic, petroseledic, oleic, and linoleic acids in the glyceride form.
Carrot seed contains up to 1.6% of essential oil. It contains alpha-pinene, cineol, geranyl acetate, geraniol, citral, citronellol, cariphylline, carotol, daucol, bisabolol. Flavone compounds from the carrot seed possess wide spectrum of therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial.
CO2-extract of rice meal and carrot seed contains: saponifiable fraction (29.93-35.5%), non-saponifiable fraction-(32.64-38.61%), free fatty acids (2.49-2.99%), carotenoids ((2.7-3.2)х10-2%), waxes (0.6%), essential oil (3.9%). Higher fatty acids, including biologically active ones, were detected in the free fatty acids as well as in the saponifiable fraction.
Carrot seed CO2-extract contains up to 49% free fatty acids and fatty acid esters, up to 0.02% tocopherols, up to 0.42% sterols, up to 0.02% carotenoids, phospholipids. It is valuable also due to biologically active poly unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic (vitamin F factor).
Grape seed is a rich source of a number of biologically active acids. Grape seeds contain up 18% of fatty oil, which, in turn, contains vitamin E (up to 0.5%), vitamin D (up to 0.2%), vitamin F (up to 24%). In addition, they contain notable amount of waxes and waxy substances interesting for cosmetics. Vitamin E improves metabolism of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, regulates fat skin layer. Vitamin D is synergetic to vitamin E. It stimulates skin metabolism, softens skin, removes flabbiness, promotes epithelium regeneration, stimulates granulation in damaged tissues. Vitamin F regulates carbohydrate metabolism, induces lipolitic activity and regenerative function of epidermis, stimulates local blood and lymph formation. In addition, grape seed CO2-extract has pronounced antioxidant properties.
Coriander CO2-extract, and in particular, its essential oil, are highly biologically active. The main component of the esential oil (up to 68%) is linalool. In addition, it contains sabinene, alpha- and beta-pinene, limonene, geraniol, citronellol, borneol, anetol, nerol, camphor, geraniol and linalool esters, and other components. Essential oil from the coriander CO2-extract stimulates blood circulation and is epidermis nutrient. Coriander CO2-extract has antiseptic activity.