The food for daily diet of natural origin promoting control of any function of an organism is healthy or functional food, and the problem of its manufacture includes social and economic, research-and-production, medical and biologic as well as historical aspects.
There are different ways to satiate a market with the products of functional
value: one can enrich refined food with proteins and various essential nutrients
using a plenty of replacements and technological food additives: colorants, thickeners,
aromatizers, preservatives, stabilizers, sweeteners, emulsifiers, fluffers, taste
intensifiers and waterkeeping components promoted and introduced by companies.
There is also another way: the satiation of a market not enriching the above-named empty products but developing the manufacture of healthy food with natural components, including CO2-extracts of spices and creating sparing, nutrient-saving, waste-free technologies, i.e. keeping all useful physiologically active and accompanying substances which real advantages are known for a long time, in their native state in the course of raw materials treatment.
From this point of view, CO2-technologies are unique in the food branches. Rather long way of implementation of CO2-extracts is connected with its high science intensity, complexity of hardware and with other reasons.
CO2-extracts of species have received especially wide development and demand. Many kinds of plants are simultaneously related to the above-named three aspects: dill, fennel, anise, calamus, and various kinds of pepper, celery, parsley, ginger, clove, coriander, tormentil, brotherwort, rosemary, balm, juniper, mint peppery, turmeric, origanum, cardamom, cinnamon, mustard, angelica, basil, polygonum, laurels, dittany, tansy, hop and others.
A high concentration of biologically active substances in these plants and a wide spectrum of aroma-and-taste parameters, availability and practical inexhaustibility when a reasonable approaching, have already made necessary most of these plants for daily nutrition.
However many of the above listed plants are not used in the industrial line production of foodstuff till now for many reasons: impossibility to preserve the biological advantages in normal warehouse conditions, fast microbiological semination and spoilage, damage by warehouse vermin, non-adaptability for industrial manufacture, high grade of quality inspection and manual labour, loss of an end-product vendibility when using, and often acceleration of its germ damage, etc.
CO2-extraction only allows integrally extracting aroma-and-taste and biologically active substances in a native state, adequately to the availability and to the combination in the spices and other vegetable raw materials previously considered as waste products of food manufactures: groats (germs, bran, husk), brewing (grain sprouts), juice and winemaking (seeds, marcs, zest), etc.
CO2-extracts have a rich component composition: organic acids, fat-soluble
vitamins and provitamins (A, D, Е, K, F), antioxidants of various nature, fats,
including polyunsaturated ones, steroids and sterols, vegetable hormones, flavonoids,
ether oils and many other substances.
The CO2-extracts are truly natural concentrates extracted from plants, with their properties and practically being biologically active additives, they can be stored at normal conditions not less than three years without change of the composition, they are technological, compact, completely soluble in vegetable oil and animal fats, in 80% vinegar, easily emulsible, they are deposited on various dry carriers keeping their flowability (salt, sugar, dry milk, flour, dextrose, starch, etc.)
A simple reference of CO2-extracts to the category of aromatizers is extremely incorrect. Forming certain bouquets of taste and aroma when adding to a food excites appetite, increases salivation, id est improves digestion process. For the last several decades the chemical composition of the most of CO2-extracts is well studied, they are allowed by the public health bodies to be used in foodstuff, including children's nutrition, completely replacing vegetable raw materials of the same name. The long-term experience of CO2-extracts application, especially spices, and their continuing study revealed many advantages relative to dry raw materials, about which much has been published already.
Based on the chemical composition, CO2-extracts possess the most of treatment-and-prophylactic properties of those plants which they are received of. The studies started by cosmeticians and food industry workers bring in fine results confirming these properties. Tens cosmetics are created and passed different tests and were already studied several decades ago. After they passed the tests in the Institute of Nutrition many CO2-extracts are introduced into the Tonus food additives with treatment-and-prophylactic properties.
The adequacy of CO2-extracts with the plants of the same name is unambiguous. Let's give an example: the CO2-extract of anise fruits (contains up to 70 per cent of anethole, metylhavicole, anise aldehyde in conjunction with fat non-saturated acids and many other BAS) (biologically-active substances) improves digestion, has antiseptic and antispasmodic effect, improves brain blood circulation and breath similarly to caraway seeds, dill and fennel. The CO2-extract of anise is a well-known deodorant effective for levelling small errors of food raw materials, as other extracts are basic aroma-and-flavour components.
One could continue the list of chemical composition and the correspondent useful
properties of CO2-extracts but practically all this was already published for
several decades in various articles and books. Undoubtedly, CO2-extracts and especially
their compounds, can be selected for all tastes, as well according to any physiological
need. CO2-extracts are produced in large amounts, id est enough for the food industry.
They should be introduced into daily diet, not only improving aroma-and-taste parameters but enriching the food with diverse compounds of biologically necessary natural substances in super little dosages.
Our researchers developed meat products for various age children's nutrition using CO2-extracts. CO2-extracts are introduced into a special nutrition, including cosmonauts'.
Domestic CO2-extracts can become a contribution to creation
of products for a functional test. The products with CO2-extracts
meet the world standards and more often surpasses them. The rates and dosages
are elaborated (0.001 - 0.05 per cent regarding the mass of the product), the
application is technological, reference documents are available. Now the matter
depends on the heads of the enterprises and initiative technologists.