|Subcritical СО2-extracts for meat and poultry half-finished products|
|Recommendations on use of spices CO2-extracts for sausage and other meat products|
SUBCRITICAL СО2-EXTRACTS FOR MEAT AND POULTRY HALF-FINISHED PRODUCTS
Natural "alive" СО2-extracts successfully substitute dry spicy aromatic raw materials when producing meat and poultry half-finished products. They have a priority over dry spices.
- compensate disadvantages and "emptiness" of half-finished products;
- unlike oleoresins, essential oils and other extracts, they have natural smell, taste and useful properties of spices and do not lose these properties during technological treatment;
- their storage period is equal to three years in normal conditions;
- are simple to use: on solid carriers (food additives, functional additives, sugar, salt), as emulsions and when direct inserting in the cutters, mixers, etc.;
- spices compositions are easily combined;
- unlike dry spices, the extracts are not microbiologically contaminated, not littered with excrements of warehouse vermin, are sterile and have bactericidal properties that prolong shelf life of the products, don't contain myco-toxins;
- are only produced from high-quality spices;
- are used all over the world, they are among high-quality products, are capable to improve quality of any meat products, enriching their smell, taste, giving them their own useful properties;
- is a very complicated natural combination of a non-lipid fraction (volatile with hydrocarbons vapour; carbonyl compounds), together with a lipid fraction (fatty acids, sterols - provitamin D; tocopherols - vitamin Е and carotenoids - provitamin A, organophosphorus compounds, which have antioxidant activity), vitamin C and of B group, vitamin K - phylloquinone, waxes, organic acids, polyunsaturated fat acids and others.
- СО2-extracts are not only exceptional in aroma and taste; they also contain physiologically active substances, positively influencing our organism in the century of synthetics and chemical additives.
When manufacturing meat half-finished products, various methods of adding СО2-
extracts are applied - both on solid carriers (salt, sugar, dry milk, phosphates,
multipurpose additives) and on their own.
Mixing СО2-extracts with salt or sugar
In conformity with an effective formula of manufacturing meat products, a certain amount of salt or granulated sugar is weighed, then a necessary amount of СО2-extracts is added and they are mixed together. When doing so, particles of sugar or salt adsorb СО2-extracts with their surface which allows easier distribution of the extracts in meat products.
In case salty forcemeat is used, СО2-extracts are deposited on any other solid carrier: food additives, sugar, etc. СО2-extracts can even be accurately dosed with just a medical syringe without a needle (volume of 5 - 20 ml).
Recommended filling rates of several subcritical СО2-extracts (grams) per 1 ton of frozen half-finished meat products
The filling rates depend on desired taste intensity as well as on the components
included in the formulas. The more vegetable or animals protein, water-bounding
additives or other by-products are used, the more the filling rates are usually
needed, and the richer the aroma will be.
RECOMMENDATIONS ON USE OF SPICES CO2-EXTRACTS FOR SAUSAGE AND OTHER MEAT PRODUCTS
The extracts from spicy aromatic dry vegetative raw materials produced by liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction of the food class, successfully replace dry spicy aromatic raw materials when manufacturing sausage and other meat products.
- have strongly pronounced aromas of the same dry spices;
- do not lose their properties, aroma and taste during storage (two years and more);
- are not damaged by vermin;
- are simple in use: with solid carriers (food additives, multipurpose additives, sugar, salt, as emulsions, solutions in fats);
- compositions of the spices are easily made;
- are pollution-free products;
- unlike dry spices, are not microbiologically seeded, are sterile and have bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties that prolongs the products storage period;
- unlike dry raw materials, especially tropical and subtropical ones, are not littered with microtoxins (aflatoxins) being products of microflora vital functions;
- are produced using high technologies at room temperatures and without access for oxygen, with a non-polar solvent (liquid carbonic acid of the food class). And the liquid CO2 instantly disappears leaving pure natural CO2-extract without solvent;
- unlike oleoresins and ether oils, have volatile matter of essential oisl in conjunction with non-volatile flavouring components of oleoresins;
- are used all over the world being high-quality products;
- unlike other kinds of extracts, are not exposed to a heat treatment when recuperating solvents;
- is the most complicated combination of target and accompanying substances, which do not harm an organism, whereas high-purity target components received even from natural sources can harm an organism;
- is a very complicated natural combination of a non-lipid fraction (volatile with hydrocarbons vapour; carbonyl compounds), because of which CO2-extracts and others are appreciated.), together with a lipid fraction (fatty acids, sterols - provitamin D; tocopherols - vitamin Е and carotenoids - provitamin A, organophosphorus compounds, which have antioxidant activity), vitamin C and of B group, vitamin K - phyllohinon, waxes, organic acids, polyunsaturated fat acids and others.
Sausage and other meat products including canned meat made with CO2-extracts of spices are appreciably more flavoured than in case of using traditional dry spices. When manufacturing meat products, various methods of application of CO2-extracts (with solid and liquid carriers as well as independently) are used.
1. Preparation of сo2-extracts mixture with multipurpose integrated additives used when manufacturing sausages and other meat products
With the expansion of functional additives number used when manufacturing sausages and to increase the producibility of the process, integrated or multipurpose additives with spices; amplifiers of aroma and taste; dyes, amplifiers and stabilizers of colour; additives raising moisture capacity of own meat proteins; additives fixing moisture and other components are widely used.
When preparing compounds, we presume from the rates of replacing dry spices with CO2-extracts based on 100 kg of forcemeat.
The dosage of CO2-extracts when applying to a compound can be calculated using grams or millilitres. If several components comprise a set of spices, then CO2-extracts counted according to the rates of replacements, are mixed up together in a single mixture.
If you use CO2-extracts and when tasting the product, the aroma
is insufficient, you should increase the rate of the extracts a bit. If when tasting,
it appears that the fill is excessive, i.e. the flavour of spices is too strong,
reduce the fill of extracts by 10 - 15 per cent and taste once again.
When manufacturing mixtures using solid carriers, the result will be better if to apply CO2-extracts without mixing them preliminary but to apply at once to a solid mixture in any sequence.
When calculating integrated additives based on 100 kg of forcemeat after weighing sugar, glutamate, phosphate, ascorbic acid and other correspondent components, one should apply a necessary amount of CO2-extracts using in particular a dozer syringe and slightly mix all this.
One can apply CO2-extracts of spices to simple systems (compounds)
containing sugar and salt (the mass of the salt should be taken into account when
salting raw materials); as well as to more complex systems, depending on the need,
for example: a) to the systems containing sugar, partly salt, glutamate, phosphate
and dye; b) to the systems containing sugar, glutamate, phosphates, ascorbic acid,
partly proteins or multipurpose stabilizing systems, dry milk, etc..
2. Preparation of mixture of CO2-extracts with salt or sugar
2.1. In conformity with a real formula of manufacturing sausage and other meat products, a certain amount of salt or granulated sugar is weighed, then a necessary amount of CO2-extracts is added, and the mixture is mixed. Doing so, sugar or salt particles adsorb at their surface CO2-extracts, which uniformly distributed through the forcemeat when applying to it.
2.2. The prepared mixture is packed up either into a densely closed container with a polyethylene insert of the food class or into a polyethylene container of the same class. In order to prevent losses of CO2-extracts, packing in clothes or paper packages is forbidden.3. Preparation of CO2-extracts emulsion
3.1. One can prepare water emulsion of CO2-extracts using a broth or meat juice by means of an installation for manufacturing water emulsions of spices extracts or by means of other similar installations.
3.2. The ratio of liquid and CO2-extracts is used by volume:
100:1 - for broth or meat juice emulsions, as well as other emulsions containing proteins;
500:1 - for water solutions including the solutions with sugar.
3.3. A certain amount of water, broth or meat juice is poured into the mixing container of the installation, and CO2-extracts are added corresponding to the specified ratio.
3.4 The treatment of a mixture in the installation is made during the period specified in the Instruction on use. The ready emulsion of CO2-extracts is drained from the mixing container and gone to manufacture sausage and other meat products. The emulsion for stuffing is prepared as follows: a measured amount of salt and CO2-extracts are combined and mixed, then liquid or other components included in the formula are added.
3.5. The emulsions can be prepared in mixers. In this case duration of the emulsion preparation will be equal to 2 - 3 minutes.
The ratio between the liquid and CO2-extracts corresponds to p. 3.2.
A ready emulsion of CO2-extracts of spices should be used within the day of their preparation.
4. Preparation of CO2-extracts mixture with fats and oils
4.1. A needed amount of fat according to the formula is warmed up until melting in a container with water jacket and a necessary amount of CO2-extracts is applied to it. After mixing, the ready flavoured fat goes to manufacture sausage and other meat products or to be packaged.
4.2. Some technologists use vegetative oil for dilution of CO2-extracts. For example, a compound of CO2-extracts prepared approximately for the next week or next month is diluted with vegetable oil in the ratio of 1:5 and at the end of chopping is applied directly to the forcemeat from a polyethylene dosing unit that gives very good results.
One can dose CO2-extracts with a medical syringe (5 - 20 ml volume), when preparing a mixture of CO2-extracts with salt, sugar, flour, dry milk, any multipurpose additive, fat, or when preparing an emulsion, or by direct application to the cutter, desirably at the end of the process. If the application volume is equal to 8 ml and above, it is recommended that the dosage is to be carried out with a measure unit, whenever possible uniformly distributing CO2-extracts over the surface of forcemeat in the cutter.
The necessary volume of CO2-extracts in millilitres is determined by division of the CO2-extracts mass into the density specified in accompanying documents.
The recommended replacement rates for 1 kg of spicy aromatic dry raw materials
by similar CO2-extracts in grams are given in Table 1 applied to
the Recommendations on use CO2-extracts from spicy aromatic dry
NOTE: Based on the experience of sausage products manufacturing, the
best one is application of CO2-extracts at the end of chopping
or after filling the basic raw materials by simple deposition from a syringe or
other dosing unit (measure unit) over the surface of forcemeat.
The recommended replacement rates of dry spicy aromatic raw materials (1 kg) with analogous CO2-extracts, in grams (+, - 20%), are as follows:
The application rates of spices can be changed by enterprises depending on quality of dry spices (region of vegetation, storage period, grinding method and other factors). In the context of quality indicators of CO2-extracts, these factors are of small account.